Market Segmentation and Selection of Target Segments

Marketing Management Revision Article Series
Buyers for a generic product constitute a market. Market can be segmented in a number of ways.
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Target Market



Buyers for a generic product constitute a market. But different buyers may have different preferences for attributes of a generic product. A marketer may have to focus on a particular group of potential buyers for a product with specific attributes. This focus is termed as targeting. Market segmentation is the effort to isolate groups of potential buyers having similar preferences for attributes of a product. Instead of mass marketing a single product, segmented marketing is done at four levels: segments, niches, local areas and inviduals.








Markets can be segmented in a number of ways.

Market Segmentation


Two broad groups of variables are used to segment consumer markets. One group of variables is consumer characteristics. The other group of variables is behavioral characteristics. Behavior is consumer response in terms of  benefits sought or  occasions when the product is used.

Consumer characteristics used for market segmentation include geographic, demographic and psychographic characteristics.

Geographic segmentation


Geographic segmentation divides the market into different geographic units such as nations, states, regions, cities and neighbor hood etc.

Demographic segmentation


In this segmentation approach, the market is divided into groups on the basis of variables such as age, family size, family life cycle, gender, income, occupation, education, religion, race, generation, nationality, or social class.

Psychographic segmentation


In this approach to segmentation, buyers are divided into different groups on the basis of lifestyle and/or personality.

Lifestyle


Active lifestyle, country lifestyle, latenighters etc. are some of the segments under this classification

Personality


Markets are being segmented on the basis of personality. Personality is a group of traits exhibited persistently by a person. For example, Ford buyers were identified as independent, impulsive, masculine, alert to change, and self confident, while Chevrolet owners were conservative, thrifty, prestige conscious, less masculine, and seeking to avoid extremes.

Behavioral segmentation


In this approach buyers are classified into groups on the basis of their knowledge of, attitude toward, use of, or response to a product. Some behavioral variables can be usage rate, readiness for buying the product, attitude toward the product, loyalty to the product, and occasions on which the product is used etc.

Multi-attribute segmentation (Geoclustering)


Some marketers are using multiple variables to define target groups. For example using socioeconomic status and lifestyle variables may be combined and market segmentation is done.

Effective Segmentation

To be useful, market segments identified in a segmentation exercise have to be:
  • Differentiable: the segments must have a conceptual basis and they have to respond differently to different marketing mix variable and attribute mix of the product.
  • Measurable: The size and purchasing powre of the segments have to be measurable.
  • Substantial: The segments have  to be large enough to serve them with a separate market mix profitably.
  • Accessible: The segments must be accessible to the marketer.
  • Actionable: The company in consideration must be able to create marketing programs for the segments.

Market Targeting


After the doing the market segmentation, the firm has to evaluate the segments for their market potential. Then the company has to decide which and how many segments to serve and how to serve them. The decision alternatives available to the firm are:

Single segment concentration


In the simplest case, the company selects a single segment.

Selective specialization


The firm selects a number of segments, each objectively attractive and appropriate, for the firms objectives and resources. There may be little or no synergy among the segments, but each segment is a money maker on its own.

Full market cover


The firm may attempt to serve all customer groups


Philip Kotler, Marketing Management , Ninth Edition (Main text for revision articles)




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5 comments:

  1. 5 dimensions of market segmentation to consider : 1. Applications, Markets, Industries. 2. Vs. competition 3. Critical desired benefits 4. Demographics 5. Regional Industry Research Reports

    ReplyDelete
  2. Ofcourse....
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    the firm has to evaluate the segments for
    their market potential. Then the company
    has to decide which and how many
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  3. Really an effective segment...
    Differentiable: the segments must have a conceptual basis and they have to respond differently to different marketing mix variable and attribute mix of the product.
    Measurable: The size and purchasing powre of the segments have to be measurable.
    Substantial: The segments have to be large enough to serve them with a separate market mix profitably.
    Accessible: The segments must be accessible to the marketer.
    Actionable: The company in consideration must be able to create marketing programs for the segments.
    Astounding! I am definitely bookmarking this to come back and read later
    Astounding blog.
    Comfortably, the post is certainly the freshest on that laudable topic.
    Excellent post! You covered the topic well.
    Extraordinary work
    Certainly wonderful! I will definitely share it with others. You ought to have appreciations for giving out.

    free articles submission


    ReplyDelete
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